No one would think that the measures taken to promote equal rights and securing equal opportunities can be turned around and cause even more disadvantages to underprivileged groups of society. However, the decisions based on Hungary’s current law on hate crimes (Section 216, Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code) have proven the contrary. Ever since its introduction in 1996, despite some progressive amendments, the relevant section has never been used to convict perpetrators for actually committing violence against a member of the community (Ivany, 2012), the title by which hate crime regulations appear in criminal codes. 

1. The main issue and aim of the article

These words sparked some thoughts regarding the refugees and the problems related to them – their migration from one country to another, their fight for a better and more peaceful way of life. In this article I will present the refugees’ position and the actions and powers which the Republic of Bulgaria has in connection to them.

1. A background sight

In the time of commemorating the 20th anniversary of the most successful project of the international powers, the Dayton Peace Accords, I am carefully examining the current situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even today, many believe that the inefficiency of the institutional set up reflects in the best light, the consequences of the artificially imposed peace. What has Dayton brought to us and will the political willingness for constitutional reforms ever come?


The geographical environment, the natural framework of existence and historical evolution, has always been a support and an influential factor in the socio-economic field, putting its mark on the evolution of social sciences, and thus on the legal system as well. Being one of the most significant factors in determining laws - a material source of law (Boboş, Buzdugan & Rebreanu, 2010), the circumstances and relevant problems which it raises are becoming a subject of day by day rising interest in our society.

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