Recently, one of the most debated topics in the European Union space is the incidence of abusive clauses in conventions ended between financial institutions and regular consumers, as an expression of business-to-consumer commercial practice. From a scientific point of view, this subject is a ramification of fields of law such as consumer law, banking law, obligations, and European law. From a social perspective, more concretely, the unfair terms are seen as a disastrous impediment that blocks the possibility assumed by one party in performing the initial obligations included in a contract.

1. Introductory Notes

What does life and the quality of life mean in terms of the criminal justice system? To what extent are we entitled to limit one’s freedom and what means are we obliged to use for that purpose? How is it possible to find balance between the individual-based considerations of equity and humanity and the protection of the public? 


Introduction on the procedural challenges in the enforcement of European competition law

The effectiveness of Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union relies upon the public enforcement of these provisions by the European Commission. It also depends on enforcement by national competition authorities and on private enforcement, but these aspects are beyond the scope of this paper. 

The signing of Dayton Peace Agreement in December, 1995, rendered a precedent in modern reflections on international law – more precisely, on constitutional and public law. A brutal war finally ended, but ethnic conflicts remain active as the years pass. An artificial peace was reached at the time and it was more than obvious that it did not stand on a fertile ground.

The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the following: Serbs, Bosniaks, and Croats are three constituent nations living on the territory of a sovereign and independent state. When it comes to the people of Republic of Srpska, the Serbs are the only ones who can elect or be elected for the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This directly denies the political rights of the Bosnians and Croats who also are from the Republic of Srpska. It implies that only a person who proclaims himself or herself as a Serb and member of this particular ethnicity may be an eligible candidate for the Presidency on state level elections. Thus, it is essential to mark this permitted discrimination as a constitutional gap.

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