1. Taking away the right to vote
As a form of punishment for social deviance, some European jurisdictions impose ancillary penalties for serious criminal offences, which entail the loss of some civic rights, such as the right to vote and to stand for election. Such penalties usually result in the removal of the convicts from electoral lists, preventing them from registering for any elections, consequently banning them from voting. Nevertheless, the right to vote is one of the fundamental rights conferred by Article 3 of Protocol No. 1 of European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (hereinafter ‘ECHR’). Striking between the principle of sovereignty and the protection of this fundamental right, the European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter ‘ ECtHR’) has on many occasions assessed whether the restriction of the right to vote is acceptable (see for instance Hirst v. UK, Scoppola v. Italy, Greens and M.T. v. UK, Firth and Others v. UK etc.).