Imagine a situation where a seller failed to supply goods under a contract. The buyer applies for interim injunction on goods to prevent their further resale. The buyer wins, but fails to recover judicial-related costs, since according to the applicable national law, each party shall bear its own costs. The buyer wants to recover these costs and later files a claim for damages which resulted from the breach of the contract by the seller - a failure to supply the goods. Would the buyer be able to recover its legal costs incurred in the injunction proceedings as damages in subsequent proceedings? 


In last few decades, cross-border road traffic has significantly increased. Consequently, the number of accidents where at least one party is not resident of the country of accident has grown proportionally. The visiting victims, i.e. the victims of accidents that occur outside of their state of residence must be aware of the fact that being damaged outside their national borders could influence on the compensation that they could expect. Also, it sometimes differs from the one that they might get if the accident had occurred in their home country (Renda, Schrefler, 2007).


The interface of human rights and extradition is widely experienced as a domain of ‘tension’ between protective and cooperative functions of international legal assistance. Protective functions are evidently most important when risk of life or torture of a requested person is at stake (Silvis, 2014).

The establishment of the single market in 1992 led to another chapter for the European Community. The aim of it was to create more jobs, bring competition for businesses and strengthen Europe in political and economic ways against the challenges of the world economy. The idea of free movement of capital, goods, services and workers without internal frontiers or tax duties within the EU became central in achieving this. It is important to note that even though the single market was officially introduced in 1992, it took many years before and big efforts afterwards in order to set up properly functioning single market that would be competitive with other world economies (European Commission statistics website, 2013).

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