The present article aims to emphasise the fine line between protecting the competition or the consumer’s interests within Competition Law. Whilst it has already been stated (CJEU, GSK Services Unlimited v Com., 2009) that competition authorities seek not only to protect consumers’ benefits, but also markets’ structure, it is interesting to observe the impact that the consumers’ harm or lack thereof may have on the finding of a breach, such as the abuse of dominant position.

Judges apply European Union law as an essential part of national law of the Member States. They have primary and standard jurisdiction for the application of Union law, but they are also required to cooperate with the judges from the Court of Luxembourg for the preservation of legal unity by ensuring the uniform interpretation and application of Union law.

This paper aims to provide an introduction to the debate on the legal position of bitcoin. It presents arguments in favour of a proper regulation system being adopted by states, as well as examples of progressive attitudes which would better accommodate the growth of this new form of currency in a legitimate and secure manner. 

Arbitration, as a form of alternate dispute resolution, has found increased popularity with the proliferation of transnational commerce. The International Court of Arbitration (ICC) alone announces more than 19,000 disputes heard since 1923, and almost 7,000 requests were filed within the last decade alone. This article shall briefly analyse the implications of an arbitration clause on the competence of a national court in the field of interim measures.

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