The European Union (EU) regulation No 650/2012 of the European Parliament and the Council regarding the succession upon death entered into force as of August 17, 2015, according to Article 83 Section 1 and Article 84. The regulation contains provisions which regard the jurisdictional competence (Article 4 and the following), but also provisions about the applicable law (Articles 21 and 22), the appointment and powers of an administrator of the estate (Article 29 and the following), and the recognition and execution of foreign court decisions and authentic documents regarding issues of law of inheritance (Article 39 and the following).

This paper aims to provide an introduction to the debate on the legal position of bitcoin. It presents arguments in favour of a proper regulation system being adopted by states, as well as examples of progressive attitudes which would better accommodate the growth of this new form of currency in a legitimate and secure manner. 

The present article aims to emphasise the fine line between protecting the competition or the consumer’s interests within Competition Law. Whilst it has already been stated (CJEU, GSK Services Unlimited v Com., 2009) that competition authorities seek not only to protect consumers’ benefits, but also markets’ structure, it is interesting to observe the impact that the consumers’ harm or lack thereof may have on the finding of a breach, such as the abuse of dominant position.

Judges apply European Union law as an essential part of national law of the Member States. They have primary and standard jurisdiction for the application of Union law, but they are also required to cooperate with the judges from the Court of Luxembourg for the preservation of legal unity by ensuring the uniform interpretation and application of Union law.

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