The idea of just war, which even denied the admissibility of a military attack as a way to resolve disputes at all, derives from the earliest times of humanity and both are nearly as old as the war itself. Not to mention the famous words from ‘The Book of Isaiah’ about beating the swords into ploughshares, a great deal of doctrines, most of them similar, appeared throughout the ages. One of them was the one introduced by a fifteenth century Polish scholar, Stanislas of Scarbimiria, in his ‘Sermon on just wars’. This first codification of a body of public international law based on a professional scientific research, objectively deals with a great deal of problems regarding the justified declaring war and of wartime conduct. Both in his way of writing and his approach to examined matters, Stanislas seemed to be much closer to the modern points of view on the law of war, unlike his contemporaries. 

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The relation between politics and international law, when it comes to influence or determine a state’s decision, has always been a controversial topic. The aim of this article is to talk about the nature of this relation and the changes that currently are taking place. State decisions have always been determined by national interests, even if, sometimes, abstract concepts like peace or equality were invoked. Internal decisions can be justified by the national legislation or the legitimacy of the deciding institution or individuals.

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Ever since its occurrence, drug testing on human beings has been considered a “grey” ethical area. Self-evidently, for the benefit and progress of medical science, new drugs have to be tested thoroughly, so their results can be determined and their counter-effects may be minimised. 

These tests need to be performed on individuals, since they will be the recipients of the drugs and medicaments. However, clinical trials on humans still remain an attack on dignity, taking into account that individuals are used as objects, or, at least, as means to a certain extent, while modern legal systems rely heavily on the common acceptance that any person is a subject of rights.

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Very often we hear people complain about how their rights are not respected. Unfortunately, we do not live in a perfect world, as many may want, but this is what the judicial system is for, whose role is to straighten any situation that does not correspond to legal norms. And yet we have to talk about the situation when, although people have rights, they do not take occasion to use them. People themselves should understand that the rights they have are just as important, whether we speak of the right to life or about the right to vote. 

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