Health systems remain to be discussed widely today in terms of quality, efficiency and safety of services provided to patients in the European Union (EU) due to their importance in the current political landscape. Based on the idea of guaranteeing equitable access to EU citizens for medical treatments, EU Member States (MS) appear to establish and to implement a more effective and non-discriminative legal framework.

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The emergency arbitration, hereinafter EA, is a relatively new tool of the arbitration procedure and, consequently, the research on this topic is scarce. Nevertheless, more and more arbitration institutions continue to adopt this innovative mechanism. International Chamber of Commerce (hereinafter ICC) and the Arbitration Institution of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (hereinafter SCC) have recently updated their rules, which now include EA as well. These respectable arbitration institutions are one of the most influential in Europe and have a high caseload.  Both institutions’ rules are considered to be one of the most meticulous on the subject of EA. SCC and ICC also have approximately the same number of cases on EA. 

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The rise of Islamic extremism across the world has sent shockwaves of panic to countries scrambling for deterrence to address this global menace. Responses vary, some countries opted for airstrikes and military actions combined with the revision of national security policies, others  like the Philippines with limited military firepower responded by crafting anti-terror laws.  This article argues however, that the anti-terror law of the Philippines causes more harm to civil liberties and freedom than secure the national security from violent extremism in Mindanao of Southern Philippines. The succeeding paragraphs describe challenges encountered to prosecute terror suspects amid the myriad of its anti-terror initiatives. This article offers possible solutions to improve government’s anti-terror campaign and concludes with an assertion that to degrade violent ideology in Mindanao, the government must invest in building communities that are more resilient. 

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1. Sovereignty

Post-independent African nations were eager to enjoy their newly acquired freedom and sovereignty when they established the Organization of the African Unity (hereafter OAU). Hence, they inscribed sovereignty as the basic tenet of the OAU so that they can ‘easily’ guard their domestic affairs against outside intervention. The OAU Charter stated protection of sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence of member states as the principles of the newly established organization. 

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