Definition

Custom (Ro.: uzanțe, Fr.: coutume, n.f., Gr.: έθιμο, Cz.: clo) (See also: act, case law, contract, source of law) = past practice with a general, repetitive character, whose existence and importance is recognised by the law.

Many legal systems belonging to both common law and civil law countries have recognised to custom the role as a source of law.

Customary law (Ro.: drept cutumiar, Fr.: droit coutumier, n.m., Gr.: εθιμικό δίκαιο) = set of legal rules founded upon custom (usage), which is applied in a certain region or country.

 

Useful links

Legislation

http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070721 – Code Civil, Art. 593, 2511, France [French]

http://www.dreptonline.ro/legislatie/codul_civil_republicat_2011_noul_cod_civil.php - Romanian Civil Code, Chapter 1, Romania [Romanian]

http://www.notariosyregistradores.com/NORMAS/codigo-civil-tp.htm - Spanish Civil Code, Chapter I, Spain [Spanish]

Organisations and association

http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/resources/pdf/overview_customary_law.pdf – 2013, Customary Law, Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: An Outline of the Issues, WIPO

https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/customary-international-humanitarian-law-i-icrc-eng.pdf - Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, Doswald-Beck, Louise, 2005, Customary International Humanitarian Law, International Community of the Red Cross

http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/customary_international_law.htm - Sahl, Silke, 2007, Researching Customary International Law, State Practice and the Pronouncements of States regarding International Law, GlobaLex

Online Publications

http://www.utgjiu.ro/revista/jur/pdf/2013-01/4_EMILIAN_CIONGARU.pdf - Ciongaru, E., 2013, New Sources of Law in the New Civil Code – Usages (Customs and Professional Customs), Juridical Sciences Series

http://www.dhdi.free.fr/recherches/theoriedroit/articles/alliotcoutume.pdf - Alliot, M., 1985, La Coutume dans les Droits Originellement Africains, Bulletin de liaison du LAJP

http://www.upm.ro/facultati_departamente/ea/RePEc/curentul_juridic/rcj06/recjurid063_42F.pdf - Boantă, A., Cutuma și Legea scrisă, coordonate ale Vechiului Drept Românesc (I), Curentul Juridic

http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/customary_international_law - Customary international law, Legal Information Institute

Publications

Boroi, G., Anghelescu, C.A., 2012, Curs de drept civil. Partea generală, Bucharest, Hamangiu Publishing House

D.J.Bederman, 2010, Custom as a Source of Law, New York, Cambridge University Press

Reghini, I., Diaconescu, Ş., Vasilescu, P., 2013, Introducere în dreptul civil, Bucharest, Hamangiu Publishing House

 

By Raluca-Andreea Trîncă-Găvan