Assault (in criminal law) (Ro.: act de violenţă, Fr.: voie(s) de fait, n.f., Gr.: επίθεση , Cz.: napadení) (See also: act of hostility, aggressive action, attack, battery, onslaught, tort) = an intentional act carried out by one person, by means of threats, or physical violence, in order to injure or harm another person.
An assault is less intense than battery (which refers to the actual physical action of harming someone), but it causes reasonable ground to believe that an individual has the means to accomplish the purpose of harming another person.
An assault does not necessarily precede battery, and battery can be committed without an assault.
http://legeaz.net/noul-cod-penal/art-193 - Romanian Criminal Code, Art. 193 [Romanian]
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/24-25/100/section/42 - Offences Against the Person Act1861, UK [English]
http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/uscode/18/I/7 - US Code- Chapter 7: Assault, USA [English]
http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&group=00001-01000&file=240-248 – Penal Code of California, Section 240-248, USA [English]
http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(jlyjdceyfotpls2nud2tqy55))/mileg.aspx?page=getobject&objectname=mcl-750-81&queryid=7885878&highlight=assault – Michigan Penal Code, Act 328 of 1931, USA [English]
https://malegislature.gov/Laws/GeneralLaws/PartIV/TitleI/Chapter265/Section13a - Massachusetts Laws, USA [English]
http://mdcourts.gov/opinions/cosa/1996/119s95.pdf - Alfred Claggett v. State of Maryland-No. 119, 1995 Term, USA
http://www.in.gov/judiciary/opinions/pdf/04080801bd.pdf - Raess v. Doescher, 883 N.E. 2d 790, Ind. 2008, USA
http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/507/197 - Smith v. United States, 507 U.S. 197, 1993, USA
http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-charges/assault-and-battery-overview.html - Assault and Battery Overview, FindLaw
http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/violent_crimes/assault_battery.htm - What is the difference between assault and battery?, FreeAdvice
http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/assault-battery-aggravated-assault-33775.html - Assault, Battery, and Aggravated Assault, Nolo
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/39161/assault-and-battery - Assault and Battery, Encyclopædia Britannica
http://nationalparalegal.edu/public_documents/courseware_asp_files/criminalLaw/otherAgainsPersons/AssaultandBattery.asp - Assault and Battery, National Paralegal College
http://www.rotlaw.com/legal-library/what-is-assault-and-battery/ - What is 'assault and battery'?, Rottenstein
http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Simple-Assault.htm - Baldwin, Lauren, Simple Assault Laws, Criminal Defense Lawyer
Davies, Graham M., Lloyd-Bostock, Sally, McMurran, Mary, Wilson, Clare, 1995, Psychology, Law, and Criminal Justice: International Developments in Research and Practice, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter
Harpwood, Vivienne, 2003, Modern Tort Law, 5th edition, London, Cavendish Publishing Limited
Putman, William, Albright, Jennifer, 2013, Legal Research, Analysis, and Writing, 3rd edition, New York, Cengage Learning
By Ruxandra Popescu