Definition

Assault (in criminal law) (Ro.: act de violenţă, Fr.: voie(s) de fait, n.f., Gr.: επίθεση , Cz.: napadení) (See also: act of hostility, aggressive action, attack, battery, onslaught, tort) = an intentional act carried out by one person, by means of threats, or physical violence, in order to injure or harm another person. 

An assault is less intense than battery (which refers to the actual physical action of harming someone), but it causes reasonable ground to believe that an individual has the means to accomplish the purpose of harming another person. 

An assault does not necessarily precede battery, and battery can be committed without an assault. 

 

Useful links

Legislation

http://legeaz.net/noul-cod-penal/art-193 - Romanian Criminal Code, Art. 193 [Romanian]

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/24-25/100/section/42 - Offences Against the Person Act1861, UK [English]

http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/uscode/18/I/7 - US Code- Chapter 7: Assault, USA [English]

http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&group=00001-01000&file=240-248 – Penal Code of California, Section 240-248, USA [English]

http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(jlyjdceyfotpls2nud2tqy55))/mileg.aspx?page=getobject&objectname=mcl-750-81&queryid=7885878&highlight=assault – Michigan Penal Code, Act 328 of 1931, USA [English]

https://malegislature.gov/Laws/GeneralLaws/PartIV/TitleI/Chapter265/Section13a - Massachusetts Laws, USA [English]

Case Law

http://mdcourts.gov/opinions/cosa/1996/119s95.pdf - Alfred Claggett v. State of Maryland-No. 119, 1995 Term, USA

http://www.in.gov/judiciary/opinions/pdf/04080801bd.pdf - Raess v. Doescher, 883 N.E. 2d 790, Ind. 2008, USA

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/507/197 - Smith v. United States, 507 U.S. 197, 1993, USA

Online Publications

http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-charges/assault-and-battery-overview.html - Assault and Battery Overview, FindLaw

http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/violent_crimes/assault_battery.htm - What is the difference between assault and battery?, FreeAdvice

http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/assault-battery-aggravated-assault-33775.html - Assault, Battery, and Aggravated Assault, Nolo

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/39161/assault-and-battery - Assault and Battery, Encyclopædia Britannica

http://nationalparalegal.edu/public_documents/courseware_asp_files/criminalLaw/otherAgainsPersons/AssaultandBattery.asp - Assault and Battery, National Paralegal College

http://www.rotlaw.com/legal-library/what-is-assault-and-battery/ - What is 'assault and battery'?, Rottenstein

http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Simple-Assault.htm - Baldwin, Lauren, Simple Assault Laws, Criminal Defense Lawyer

Publications

Davies, Graham M., Lloyd-Bostock, Sally, McMurran, Mary, Wilson, Clare, 1995, Psychology, Law, and Criminal Justice: International Developments in Research and Practice, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter

Harpwood, Vivienne, 2003, Modern Tort Law, 5th edition, London, Cavendish Publishing Limited

Putman, William, Albright, Jennifer, 2013, Legal Research, Analysis, and Writing, 3rd edition, New York, Cengage Learning

 

By Ruxandra Popescu