Tort (Ro.: prejudiciu, delict civil, faptă ilicită, daună, Gr.: αδικοπραξία, Cz.: občanskoprávní delikt) (See also: breach of contract, damage, injury, liability, remedies, negligence) = a harmful civil wrong caused by the defendant, other than a breach of contract, for which Courts usually provide damages to the plaintiff. Torts may include injuries to persons caused by medical malpractice, negligent automobile accidents, and product faults; injuries to property, such as trespasses; and injuries to reputation.
Torts can also be breaches of contract. For example, the passenger of a taxi can sue the taxi driver in case of a negligent-driving accident: either for breach of contract (breach of obligation to carry the passenger safely) or in tort (tort of negligence).
~ action (acţiune întreprinsă pentru repararea prejudiciului), proceedings in ~ (acțiune în răspundere civilă delictuală) = an action filed by the injured person in order to seek compensation from the defendant.
business ~ (prejudiciu comercial) = a harmful wrong caused by a commercial transaction, following fraud or negligent misrepresentation.
intentional ~ (as opposed to unintentional) (prejudiciu intenţionat) = a deliberate injury that results from the intentional act of the defendant (for example: assault, battery, domestic violence, crimes, and trespass to land).
~ feasor (persoana responsabilă delictual) = the individual or business who committed or is responsible of a tort.
statutory ~ (prejudiciu statutar) = the set of rules imposed by the legislature on public and private parties (for example, the Product Liability Directive imposed by the European Union, regarding the liability for defective products that harm people)
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1985L0374:19990604:EN:PDF- Product Liability Directive 85/374/EEC
http://civil.udg.edu/php/biblioteca/items/283/PETL.pdf -Principles of European Tort Law (PETL)
http://ec.europa.eu/justice/contract/files/european-private-law_en.pdf - Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law. Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), Book VI (non-contractual liability)
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/tort-theories- Theories of Tort Law
http://tort.laws.com/tort-law- Tort Law
http://legis.wisconsin.gov/lrb/pubs/wb/01wb11.pdf- Tort Actions and Civil damages
http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/2315.18- Compensatory damages in Tort Actions
http://wps.prenhall.com/ca_ph_blair_law_1/6/1550/396913.cw/index.html- Intentional Torts
http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/books/lbb/x134.htm- Intentional Torts
Gifford, Donald G., 2005, Tort The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, Kermit L. Hall, Oxford University Press
European Group on tort law, 2005, Principles of European Tort Law. Text and Commentary, Vienna, Springer
Principles of European law, Study group on European Civil Code, 2009, Non-contractual Liability arising out of damage caused to another, by Ch. V. Bar (ed.) Oxford, Oxford Press
European Centre of Tort and Insurance Law, Research unit for European tort law, Unification of Tort Law collection:
-Koziol, H. (ed.), 1998, Wrongfulness, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
-Windmer, P. (ed.), 2005, Fault, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
-Boch, B.A., Koziol, H. (eds.), 2002, Strict Liability, The Hague, Kluwer Law Internatonal
-Spier, J.(ed.), 2003, Liability for damage caused by others, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
-Spier, J. (ed.), 2000, Causation, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
-Magnus, U., Martin-Casals (eds.), 2004, Contributory Negligence, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
-Rogers, W.H.V., 2004, Multiple tort feasors, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
-Magnus, U., 2001, Damages, The Hague, Kluwer Law International
Bussani, M. (ed.),2007, European Tort Law: Eastern and Western Perspectives, Berne Stämpfli
Dam, C.C. van, 2006, European Tort Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press
Baudouin, J.-L., Deslauriers, P., 2007, La responsabilité civile, 7th ed., vol. 1-2, Cowansville, Quebec, Yvon Blais edition
Terré, F.(ed.), 2011, Pour une réforme du droit de la responsabilité civile, Paris, Dalloz
Viney, G., 2006, Introduction à la responsabilité, 3rd ed., Paris, L.G.D.J.
Pop, L., Popa, I.F., Vidu, S.I., 2012, Tratat elementar de drept civil. Obligațiile, București, Universul Juridic
Vasilescu P., 2012, Drept civil. Obligații – în lumina noului cod civil, București, Hamangiu
http://www.egtl.org - European Group on Tort Law
http://www.atra.org/ - American Tort Reform Association
By Oana Gligan