Lien (Ro.: privilegiu, sarcină, drept de retenție, drept de gaj, drept de sechestru, Gr.: ενέχυρο, Cz.: zadržovací právo) (See also: charge, claim, hold on property, encumbrance, hypothecation, liability, obligation, restraint, title impairment, mortgage)
= a type of security interest which lies upon an item of property in order to ensure the execution of an obligation. In a legal relationship the party that grants the lien is called a lienor, while the party that benefits from it is called a lienee.
The term has various significations in different parts of the world. For instance, while in the US it is used to refer to a wider range of encumbrances and has a non-possessory nature, in other common law countries the term means a specific, possessory type of security interest.
equitable ~ (privilegiu echitabil) = a type of lien imposed by courts on the right of property, for reasons of fairness.
statutory ~ (privilegiu legal) = a type of lien granted by law in certain situations.
contractual ~ (privilegiu contractual) = a type of lien which has a consensual nature, meaning that the parties of the contract have agreed upon inserting this type of security interest in their contractual relation.
common-law ~ (privilegiu creat pe bază de precedent) = a type of lien which has its origin in the the common law, rather than in laws, equity or the parties’ agreement.
mercantile ~ (privilegiu comercial) = a lien granted in commercial relations.
~ on shares (privilegiu pe acțiuni) = a lien granted on the shares of a certain shareholder in a company.
http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/.const/.article_14 - California Constitution
http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/PR/htm/PR.53.htm - Texas Property Code
http://open.nysenate.gov/legislation/bill/A827-2013 - State of New York, Bill A827-2013
https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/S/StorageLiensA73.pdf- Queensland’s Storage Liens Act 1973
http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_90c30_e.htm - Ontario’s Construction Lien Act
http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/_pdf.php?cap=b91 - The Builders' Liens Act
http://canlii.ca/en/nb/laws/stat/rsnb-1973-c-m-6/latest/rsnb-1973-c-m-6.html - Mechanics' Lien Act, 1973, Canada
http://www.uniformlaws.org/shared/docs/construction%20lien/ucla87.pdf - Uniform Construction Act drafted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform States Laws
http://www.law.ualberta.ca/alri/docs/rfd013.pdf - Report on Liens, Report for Discussion No. 13 September 1992, Alberta Law Reform Institute, Emonton, Aleberta
Bristow, D. and others, 2005, Toronto, Construction Builders' and Mechanics' Liens in Canada, Thomson-Carswell
Owen, D., Editor, 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia Builders Liens Practice Manual, Continuing Legal Education Society
http://www.zlien.com/blog/how-lien-and-bond-claims-against-state-projects-work/ - Wolfe, Scott Jr., How Lien and Bond Claims Against State Projects Work
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1323190 - Simkovic, Michael, Secret Liens and the Financial Crisis of 2008
http://www.lorman.com/newsletter/article.php?article_id=180&newsletter_id=35 – Pierson, George J, Zicherman, Michael S., Mechanics’ Liens — An International Perspective
http://www.arch.mcgill.ca/prof/covo/arch674/winter2009/docs/Construction%20law%20in%20Quebec,%20Kauffman-Interlaw-juillet06.pdf - Kauffman, David H., Construction Projects in Quebec
By Bianca Alexandra Prunea