Shareholder (Ro.: asociat, Gr.: μέτοχος Ε.Π.Ε, Cz.: akcionář, Cr.: akcionar/dioničar) (See also: stockholder, stakeholder, limited liability company, stocks, shares, private company, unlisted company) = a particular term denominating the natural or a legal person who has a title of ownership over a share of stock within a limited liability company; the acquired shares convert the shareholders into the owners of the limited liability company.
Stockholder and shareholder are often used as synonyms, given the slight difference between the two terms (shareholder only refers to limited liability companies). Stakeholder, however, differs from both stockholder and shareholder, as it describes a person who does not necessarily have a title of ownership, but with an interest in the company.
http://www.cdep.ro/legislatie/eng/vol32eng.pdf - Romania, Law on trading companies no. 31/1990, translated into English; Law on trading register no. 26/1990, translated into English
http://www.libertas-institut.com/de/MK/nationallaws/Trade_companies.pdf – Macedonia, Law on trade companies, translated into English
http://www.mit.gov.jo/portals/0/tabid/502/Companies%20Law.aspx – Jordan, The companies’ Law no. 22/1997, translated into English
http://www.trade.gov.mv/downloads/4dbe5307765de_Company%20Act%20%28English%29.pdf – Maldive, The companies’ Act no. 10/1996, translated into English (unofficial translation)
http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=98894 – South Africa, Companies Act no. 71/2008
Pettet, B.G., 2005, Company law, 2nd ed., Pearson Education Limited
Griffin, S., 2006, Company law: fundamental principles, 4th ed., Pearson Education Limited
http://hbr.org/2012/07/what-good-are-shareholders - What good are shareholders?, Harvard Business Review
http://www.jstor.org/stable/258887 - The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications, The Academy of Management Review
http://www.investopedia.com/articles/01/050201.asp - Knowing your rights as a shareholder
By Andrada Rusan