Abusive clause (Ro.: Clauză abuzivă, Fr.: Clause abusive, Alb.: Kusht i Padrejtë/ Kusht Abuziv) (See also consumer protection, contract law, unfair practice, written clauses) = unfair term used by a party mostly in adhesion contracts. This unfair term is usually not negotiated with the other party, it is a standard term most of the time, and it does not respect the principle of good faith in contracts.
This term has a special application in consumer protection law due to the adoption of the Directive 93/12/EEC by the Council, when European countries started to pay more attention to the contracts concluded by a professional (seller) and a natural person (buyer). One of the best examples today is given by the credit agreements where banks have a prefigured form of a contract. As these agreements are not negotiated with the consumer, he/she must accept all the contractual terms, otherwise the contract will not be concluded.
When such a contractual term is deemed to be abusive by a court or by the Consumer National Authorities, it will be considered unwritten or null. The legal consequence will be the annulment of the term. Before the adoption and in the absence of the Consumer Directive, the nature of the abusive clause and the legal solution were - established using the principle of good faith.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:31993L0013&from=EN – Council Directive 93/13/EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts [English]
http://lege5.ro/Gratuit/gmzdmnzxgm/legea-nr-193-2000-privind-clauzele-abuzive-din-contractele-incheiate-intre-profesionisti-si-consumatori Law no. 193/2000 concerning abusive clauses [Romanian]
Organisations and associations
http://www.clauses-abusives.fr/txt/textes.htm - Abusive Clause French Commission
http://www.anpc.gov.ro/ - National Romanian Authority for Consumers Protection
https://asociatiaparakletos.wordpress.com/ - Parakletos Consumers Association
ECJ case C-26/13 Kásler and Káslerné Rábai vs. OTP Jelzálogbank Zrt
ECJ case C-342/13 Katalin Sebestyén vs Zsolt Csaba Kővári and others
Cour de Cassation fr., Dec. 12-26416 from 3rd of December 2013
http://legeaz.net/spete-drept-comercial/actiune-anulare-clauza-abuziva-contract-credit-1491-2010- Bucharest Tribunal, Commercial Division VI, Civil Decision no.1491 from 17th of December 2010, unpublished [ Romanian ]
http://www.lawyr.it/index.php/articles/domestic-focus/540-abusive-clauses-in-the-life-cycle-of-a-consumer-contract Rațiu, I., 2015, Abusive clauses in the life cycle of a consumer contract, Lawyr.it
http://www.juridice.ro/326335/clauzele-abuzive-in-contractele-de-credit-o-tema-incandescenta-in-dreptul-national-si-cel-european.html - Avram, M., 2014, Clauzele abuzive în contractele de credit- o temă incandescentă în dreptul național și european, Juridice.ro [ Romanian ]
https://books.google.ro/books?id=9AmfbET7GJ4C&pg=PA379&lpg=PA379&dq=abusive+clause+legislation&source=bl&ots=21s63aM_h3&sig=Leim5CeMJQvckK3r3CJxNFU9qLU&hl=ro&sa=X&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBDgKahUKEwjwq7zFpsLIAhXJ1ywKHUhZDng#v=onepage&q=abusive%20clause%20legislation&f=false- Colombi Ciacchi, A., Weatherill, S., 2010, Regulating Unfair Bnaking Practices in Europe:The Case of Personal Suretyships, USA, New York, Oxford University Press.
http://www.businesslawconference.ro/revista/articole/an3nr1/33.%20Stanescu%20Andreea%20Teodora%20EN.pdf – Stănescu,A. T., 2014, The concept of abusive/unfair terms in contracts concluded between the undertakings, on the hand, and the consumers, on the other hand, Perspectives of Business Law Journal Vol. 1, Issue 1, Nov. 2014
http://cks.univnt.ro/uploads/cks_2014_articles/index.php?dir=02_private_law%2F&download=CKS+2014_private_law_art.011.pdf- Comșa, Paul, A FRESH APPROACH TO UNFAIR TERMS IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS: ARE THE LATEST LAW AMENDMENTS BENEFICIAL TO CONSUMERS?
Billiet, P., 2013, Class Arbitration in European Union, Belgium, Maklu
Neyers, J.; Bronaugh, R.; Pite, S., 2009, Exploring Contract Law, Oregon, USA, Oxford and Portland
Fauvarque-Cosson, B. Mazeuad, D., 2008, European Contract Law - Materials for a Common Frame of Reference: Terminology, Guiging Principles, Model Rules, Munchen, Sellier.European law publishers
Schlechtriem, P.; Butler, P.; 2009, UN Law on International Sales - The UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods, Germany, Heidelberg, Springer
Beale, H; Fauvarque-Cosson, B; Rutgers, J.; Tallon, D.; Vogenauer, S., 1988, Contract Law: Cases, Materials and Texts, Britain, Oxford, Hart Publishing