Introduction on the procedural challenges in the enforcement of European competition law

The effectiveness of Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union relies upon the public enforcement of these provisions by the European Commission. It also depends on enforcement by national competition authorities and on private enforcement, but these aspects are beyond the scope of this paper. 

The signing of Dayton Peace Agreement in December, 1995, rendered a precedent in modern reflections on international law – more precisely, on constitutional and public law. A brutal war finally ended, but ethnic conflicts remain active as the years pass. An artificial peace was reached at the time and it was more than obvious that it did not stand on a fertile ground.

The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the following: Serbs, Bosniaks, and Croats are three constituent nations living on the territory of a sovereign and independent state. When it comes to the people of Republic of Srpska, the Serbs are the only ones who can elect or be elected for the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This directly denies the political rights of the Bosnians and Croats who also are from the Republic of Srpska. It implies that only a person who proclaims himself or herself as a Serb and member of this particular ethnicity may be an eligible candidate for the Presidency on state level elections. Thus, it is essential to mark this permitted discrimination as a constitutional gap.

1. Introductory Notes

What does life and the quality of life mean in terms of the criminal justice system? To what extent are we entitled to limit one’s freedom and what means are we obliged to use for that purpose? How is it possible to find balance between the individual-based considerations of equity and humanity and the protection of the public? 


Law touches upon many aspects of people’s lives, even those unexpected from a layman’s perspective. One such area is family reunification law, whose importance is growing along with the increasing rate of international migration. From the European Union law perspective, falling in love with a person of another nationality creates numerous legal challenges, while things can get even more complicated if one partner is an EU citizen and the other third country national. How do they arrange their relationship? Where can they live? What will be the status of their children?

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