Cultural diversity and the principle of religious pluralism are axiomatic for a democratic society. Undoubtedly, the world is dealing with an increase in religion intolerance. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the misplaced concern that the overt practice of Islam is a proxy for ‘extremism’ led to xenophobia and discrimination towards Muslims (Taylor, 2005).

The European Union (EU) regulation No 650/2012 of the European Parliament and the Council regarding the succession upon death entered into force as of August 17, 2015, according to Article 83 Section 1 and Article 84. The regulation contains provisions which regard the jurisdictional competence (Article 4 and the following), but also provisions about the applicable law (Articles 21 and 22), the appointment and powers of an administrator of the estate (Article 29 and the following), and the recognition and execution of foreign court decisions and authentic documents regarding issues of law of inheritance (Article 39 and the following).

Consent plays a pivotal role in the development of international law. It can be used as an instrument of protecting the sovereign equality of nations and jealously guard one’s interest (Guzman, 2011). Given the heterogeneous interest of nations, however, it can also be an impediment for the development of international rules (Guzman, 2011). Positive law theorists emphasized that a state must give its consent to be effectively bound by the international law, but the naturalists support the idea that international law can exist without the will of the nations (D’Amato, 2010). State consent has the potential to increasing compliance of nations with international laws and bolster legitimacy or/and constituency, and help to tackle frequent, or rather haphazard deviation from the international obligations.

The present article aims to emphasise the fine line between protecting the competition or the consumer’s interests within Competition Law. Whilst it has already been stated (CJEU, GSK Services Unlimited v Com., 2009) that competition authorities seek not only to protect consumers’ benefits, but also markets’ structure, it is interesting to observe the impact that the consumers’ harm or lack thereof may have on the finding of a breach, such as the abuse of dominant position.

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