Murder [Ro.: omucidere, Fr.:  homicide, Gr.: ανθρωποκτονία] (See also: Homicide, Manslaughter, Assault, Battery, Infanticide) = the unlawful killing of a person, where the defendant intends to kill or cause grievous bodily harm. In some systems, special statutory definitions separate the crime depending on whether there was premeditation (First and second degree murder in the USA), while other systems make no such distinction, as long as intention is present. (United Kingdom)

~ Intent [Ro.: Intenție, Fr.: Intention, Gr.:δόλος] = A determination to perform a particular act or to forsee it and accept the possibility of it happening.

~ Grievously bodily harm [Ro: Vătămare corporală gravă, Fr: Lésions corporelles graves, Gr.: βαριά σωματική βλάβη] = a form of assault which represents the unlawful wounding of an individual with intent.

~ premeditation [Ro.: Premeditare, Fr.: préméditation, Gr.: προμελέτη] = consideration or planning of an act beforehand which have the role of maximizing the chances that the crime is successfully performed.

Useful Links

Legislation Romanian Criminal Code [Romanian] Homicide Act 1957 [English] Crimes and offenses against the person Article 1 – Homicide [English]

Organisations and Associations  National Homicide Investigators Association [United States]

Case Law House of Lords, United Kingdom R v Inglis [2010] EWCA Crim 2637 United Kingdom House of Lords Airedale NHS Trust v Bland [1993] House of Lords,United Kingdom Cunningham [1982] AC 566

Online Publications - Edwards S. 2010, Anger and fear as justifiable preludes for loss of self-control, United Kingdom, 74 Journal of Criminal Law 223 [English] - Stansfield R., 2016, Economic Disadvantage and Homicide, United States, Homicide Research Working Group [English] - S.B., 2013, What is the difference between Murder and Manslaughter?, The Economist, United Kingdom [English] - Tamblyn N., 2015, Necessity and Murder, United Kingdom, Journal of Criminal Law 2015 vol. 79 no. 1 46-54 [English] - Tamblyn N., 2014, Why is killing morally wrong?, United Kingdom, King's Law Journal, Volume 25, Number 3 pp. 426-439(14) [English]


Mitchell, B., 1990, Murder and penal policy, Basingstoke: Macmillan [English]

Estrich, S., 1998, Getting away with murder : How politics is destroying the criminal justice system, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press [English]

By Alexandru Gradinaru