Espionage (Public/Private International Law) [Ro.: spionaj, Fr.: espionnage, Sp. espionaje, It.: spionaggio, Gr.: κατασκοπεία] (See also: counterintelligence, secret, sabotage) = it involves various activities such as hiding, seeking, researching, disguising in order to obtain secret/classified information with political/military/industrial/etc. character. It is practised by countries` secret services, the army or corporations (this is not a limited list). The person who does such activities is called a spy or secret agent.

Industrial ~ (Ro.: ~ industrial, Fr.: ~ industriel, Sp. ~ industrial, It.: ~ industriale, Gr.: εταιρική κατασκοπεία) (See also: corporations) = it is practised by corporations in order to outrun their competition. The secret information that must be collected, usually regards know-how, economic situation, innovative ideas etc.


Useful links

Legislation - Official Secrets Act 1911 [English UK] - Official Secrets Act 1920 [English UK] - US Code, Chapter 37 – Espionage and Censorship [English US] - Romanian Criminal Code, Article 400 [Romanian];jsessionid=401CEB4D2075ED60D07D225FD1543D0B.tplgfr32s_2?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070719&dateTexte=20190312 - French Criminal Code [French] - Spanish Criminal Code [Spanish] - Italian Criminal Code, Article 257 [Italian] - Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907 [English] - Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949 [English] - The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) - The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963)

Organisations and associations - Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) - Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) - Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure (DGSE) - Departamento de Seguridad Nacional (DSN) - Dipartimento delle informazioni per la sicurezza (DIS)

Case law - United States Supreme Court, Schenck v. United States, 1919 - United States Supreme Court, Abrams v. United States, 1919{%22itemid%22:[%22001-57510%22]} - European Court of Human Rights, Klass and others v. Germany, 1978{%22fulltext%22:[%22\%22CASE%20OF%20BUCUR%20AND%20TOMA%20v.%20ROMANIA%20-%20[Romanian%20Translation]%20by%20the%20SCM%20Romania%20and%20IER\%22%22],%22documentcollectionid2%22:[%22GRANDCHAMBER%22,%22CHAMBER%22],%22itemid%22:[%22001-123026%22]} - European Court of Human Rights, Bucur and Toma v. Romania, 2013 - United States Court of Appeals, United States v. Hanjuan Jin, 2013

Online publications - Council of Europe, European Court of Human Rights, Case-Law Research Report - National Security and European Case-Law, 2013 - Buchan, R., 2018, Cyber Espionage and International Law, Hart Publishing - Hastedt, G., 2003, Espionage: A Reference Handbook, Santa Barbara, ABD-CLIO, Inc. - Kish, J., Turns, D., 1995, International Law and Espionage, The Netherlands, Kluwer Law International - Lubin, A., 2018, Cyber Law and Espionage Law as Communicating Vessels, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, CyCon X: Maximising Effects, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) (2018)


Bogdan, S., 2014, Noul Cod Penal: analize, explicații, comentarii: perspectiva clujeană. Vol. 2: Partea speciala, București, Ed. Universul Juridic

Botău, D., 2013, Aplicarea dreptului internațional în subsistemul Convenției Europene a Drepturilor Omului. Cazul Kononov, București, Ed. Hamangiu, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Sfera Juridică

Constantin, V., 2010, Drept internațional, București, Ed. Universul Juridic

Lafouasse, F., 2012, L`Espionage dans le droit international, Paris, Nouveau Monde

Nasheri, H., 2005, Economic Espionage and Industrial Spying, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Thomas, R., 1991 or 2016 Edition, Espionage and Secrecy: The Official Secrets Acts 1911-1989 of the United Kingdom, Routledge


By Oana Bahnean