Third Party Litigation Funding, also known as legal financing or third party funding (International Trade Law) = a new form of litigation financing, referring to the practice of financial support from a third party. Usually a specialised legal person, secures the full or part of the litigation or arbitration costs for one of the involved parties in return of a part of the damages, determined by the judgement or the settlement. Where the litigation is unsuccessful, the funder receives no share of the damages and bears the agreed costs.

The main advantage of Third Party Litigation Funding practice is that it eliminates the risk of high costs that may apply to any trial or settlement. It also secures the access to justice of the parties that cannot afford supporting a litigation action.

The application of third party litigation funding is currently limited to cases of high value, mostly the commercial ones and so far it has not yet deemed suitable for consumer or personal injury cases or claims as these do not carry a sufficiently high level of damages.


Useful links:

Legislation - Arbitration and Mediation Legislation (Third Party Funding) Ordinance no. 6 of 2017 (Hong Kong) [English] - Legal Profession Rules 2015, art. 49A (Singapore) [English]


Arbitral Institution Rules - CIETAC China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission International Investment Arbitration Rules (for Trial Implementation), 2017, article 27 [English] - SIAC Investment Arbitration Rules [English] - ICC International Chamber of Commerce, Note to Parties and Arbitral Tribunals on the Conduct of the Arbitration [English]


Case Law - England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division), Arkin v Borchard Lines Ltd & Ors [2005] EWCA Civ 655 [English] - Crystallex International Corporation v. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/11/2 [English] - International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, Eskosol SPA v Italy, ICSID Case no. ARB/15/50 [English] - England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division), Essar Oilfields Services Ltd v Norscot Rig Management Pvt Ltd [2016] EWHC 2361 (Comm) (15 September 2016) [English] - International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, EuroGas Inc. and Belmont Resources Inc. v. Slovak Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/14 [English] - Guaracachi America, Inc. and Rurelec PLC v. The Plurinational State of Bolivia, UNCITRAL, PCA Case No. 2011-17 [English] - International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, RSM Production Corporation and others v. Grenada, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/6 [English] - Royal Court of Justice, Excalibur Ventures LLC, Case No. A3/2015/0443 & A3/2015/0476 [English] - US District Court, Illinois, Viamedia Inc. v Comcast, Case no. 16-cv-5486, 2017 [English] - Teinver S.A., Transportes de Cercanías S.A. and Autobuses Urbanos del Sur S.A. v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/09/1 [English] - South American Silver Limited v. Bolivia, PCA Case No. 2013-15 [English] - Philip Morris Brands Sàrl, Philip Morris Products S.A. and Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/7 (formerly FTR Holding SA, Philip Morris Products S.A. and Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay) [English] - Muhammet Çap & Sehil In_aat Endustri ve Ticaret Ltd. Sti. v. Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/12/6 [English] - S & T Oil Equip & Machinery, et al v. Juridica Investments Limited, et al, No. 11-20400 (5th Cir. 2012) [English]


Online Publications

Mechanics of Third-Party Funding Agreements: a Funder’s Perspective, available at: [English]

Khoza M.J., Formal Regulation of Third Party Litigation Funding Agreements? A South African Perspective, PER / PELJ 2018 (21) - DOI 3781/2018/v21i0a3434 [English]

Steinitz M., The litigation finance contract, in WM Mary Law Review 54, available at [English]

Ungureanu C.T., Financing International Commercial Litigation with Third Party Litigation Funding Practice, in Moldavian Journal of International Law and International Relations, Issue 1, vol. 35, 2015, available at: [Romanian]



Cremades Sanzpastor B. M., Dimolitsa A., eds., Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration (ICC Dossier) (Kluwer 2013) [English]

Goeler J., Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration and its Impact on Procedure, Wolters Kluwer, 2016 [English]

Nieuwveld L.B., Sahani V.S., Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration, 2nd edition, Wolters Kluwer, 2017 [English]

Rowles-Davies N., Cousins J., Third Party Litigation Fuding, Oxford University Press, 2014 [English]

Ungureanu C.T., Dreptul comerțului internațional, Ed. Hamangiu, București, 2018 [Romanian]


Practical Use

Association of Litigation Funders,


By Andreea Serban