Foreclosure (Ro.: procedură de executare silită, Fr.: saisie immobilière, n.f., Gr.: αναγκαστική εκτέλεση, Cz.: zabavení věci pro neplacení hypotéky) (See also: borrower, creditor, debtor, mortgage, obligation) = refers to the legal proceeding by which the lender tries to recover a loan from the borrower, who is unable to continue making loan payments. 

Judicial ~ (Ro.: procedură de executare silită efectuată în baza unei hotărâri judecătorești, Fr.: procédure judiciaire de saisie, n.f.) = the legal proceeding requiring a court order, in order for the creditor to be able to recover his/ her loan from the debtor.

Non-judicial ~ (Ro.: procedură de recuperare a bunurilor neaflate în procedură de executare silită, a bunurilor ipotecate nesechestrate, Fr.: saisie non juridique, n.f.) = a proceeding allowing the creditor to recover his/ her loan from the debtor outside of the court, under the provisions of the state law. 


Useful links

Legislation - Real Estate Foreclosure, Chapter 846, Wisconsin Statutes, USA [English] - Foreclosure and Redemption of Mortgages, Chapter 244, Massachusetts General Law, USA [English] - Code de Commerce, Article L622-26, France [French] - Code de procédure civile, Article 540, France [French] - Mortgage Repossessions (Protection of Tenants etc.) Act 2010, UK [English] - Home Owner and Debtor Protection (Scotland) Act 2010, Scotland [English] - Civil Procedure Code, Book V, Art. 665, Romania [Romanian] 

Case Law - Housing Court Department, Boston Division, Bank of New York v. KC Bailey, 2011 - Land Court Department, U.S. Bank National Association v. Antonio Ibanez, 2009 - Superior Court Department, Suffolk, Henrietta Eaton v. Federal National Mortgage Association, 2012 - United States Court of Appeals, Easthampton Savings Bank & Others v. City of Springfield, 2014 - Supreme Court, Kings County, Deutsche Bank National Trust Company v. Linda Bailey, 2009 - Supreme Court, Kings County, Wells Fargo Bank v. Hillary Farmer, 2008 - Supreme Court, Suffolk County, Deutsche Bank National Trust Co. v. Torres, 2009 - Cour de cassation, civile, Chambre commerciale, N° 11-25.963, 2013

Organisations and associations - Judicial Versus Non-Judicial Foreclosure, Mortgage Bankers Association (USA)

Online Publications - Timeline for a Judicial Foreclosure, - Non-Judicial Foreclosure, Legal Information Institute - Judicial vs. Non-Judicial Foreclosure, Realty Trac


Denisart, Jean Baptiste, Camus, Armand-Gaston, Bayard, Jean B., 1789, Collection de décisions nouvelles et de notions relatives à la jurisprudence, Volume 8, Paris, Desaint, p. 732

Dalloz, M., Tournemine, M., 1826, Recueil critique de jurisprudence et de législation, Paris, Dalloz, p. 239


By Alexandra Mureșan