Custom (Ro.: uzanțe, Fr.: coutume, n.f., Gr.: έθιμο, Cz.: clo, Alb.: zakon) (See also: act, case law, contract, source of law) = past practice with a general, repetitive character, whose existence and importance is recognised by the law.

Many legal systems belonging to both common law and civil law countries have recognised to custom the role as a source of law.

Customary law (Ro.: drept cutumiar, Fr.: droit coutumier, n.m., Gr.: εθιμικό δίκαιο, Alb.: e drejta zakonore) = set of legal rules founded upon custom (usage), which is applied in a certain region or country.


Useful links

Legislation – Code Civil, Art. 593, 2511, France [French] - Romanian Civil Code, Chapter 1, Romania [Romanian] - Spanish Civil Code, Chapter I, Spain [Spanish]

Organisations and association – 2013, Customary Law, Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: An Outline of the Issues, WIPO - Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, Doswald-Beck, Louise, 2005, Customary International Humanitarian Law, International Community of the Red Cross - Sahl, Silke, 2007, Researching Customary International Law, State Practice and the Pronouncements of States regarding International Law, GlobaLex

Online Publications - Ciongaru, E., 2013, New Sources of Law in the New Civil Code – Usages (Customs and Professional Customs), Juridical Sciences Series - Alliot, M., 1985, La Coutume dans les Droits Originellement Africains, Bulletin de liaison du LAJP - Boantă, A., Cutuma și Legea scrisă, coordonate ale Vechiului Drept Românesc (I), Curentul Juridic - Customary international law, Legal Information Institute


Boroi, G., Anghelescu, C.A., 2012, Curs de drept civil. Partea generală, Bucharest, Hamangiu Publishing House

D.J.Bederman, 2010, Custom as a Source of Law, New York, Cambridge University Press

Reghini, I., Diaconescu, Ş., Vasilescu, P., 2013, Introducere în dreptul civil, Bucharest, Hamangiu Publishing House


By Raluca-Andreea Trîncă-Găvan