Trespass (See also: assault, battery, false imprisonment, personal property, real property, unlawful entry) = (in criminal law) an intentional and unlawful breaching of another’s property through violence or with a criminal purpose.

~ to the person (Ro.: distrugere/ violare de domiciliu, Fr.: atteinte directe, n.f./ intrusion illicite, n.f., Gr.:  καταπάτηση, Cz.: neoprávněný vstup na cizí pozemek) = a person’s act of intentionally causing injury to the plaintiff’s person, rights, or property, through assault, battery, or false imprisonment, without justification or consent.

(in tort law and in property law) an injury caused by unauthorised interference with a person’s property rights.

~ action (Ro.: acţiune civilă pentru protecţia juridică a dreptului de proprietate, Fr.: action pour atteinte directe/ intrusion/ atteinte immobilière, n.f.) = a remedy used by a victim in order to recover damages or receive compensation for injury caused by unauthorised interference with the plaintiff’s personal property

~ to land (Ro.: tulburare de posesie/ violare a dreptului de proprietate, Fr.: intrusion, n.f./ atteinte immobilière, n.f./ atteinte à la possession, n.f./ violation du droit de propriété, n.f.) = a person’s intentional interference  with another person’s real property without permission, license, justification, or necessity.


Useful links

Legislation - Texas Penal Code, Title 7, Chapter 30, USA [English] - Romanian Criminal Code, Art. 224, Romania [Romanian] - Romanian Criminal Code, Art. 253, Romania [Romanian] – French Criminal Code, Art. 226-4-2, France [French] - Maryland Criminal Code, § 6-402, USA [English] - Idaho Code, Title 18, Chapter 70, USA [English] - Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, Section 68, UK [English] - Ontario Trespass to Property Act, Chapter T.21, Canada [English]

Case Law - Gaetano Constanza, R v. [1997] EWCA Crim 633, England and Wales Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) Decisions - Burstow R v. Ireland, R v. [1997] UKHL 34, United Kingdom House of Lords Decisions - Letang v. Cooper [1964] EWCA Civ 5, England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions - Watson v. British Boxing Board of Control Limited [2000] EWCA Civ 2116, England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions - United States v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (1946) U.S. Supreme Court - Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, 447 U.S. 74 (1980), U.S. Supreme Court - Robert's River Rides, Inc. v. Steamboat Development Corporation and City of Bettendorf v. State of Iowa, Supreme Court of Iowa, 1994

Online Publications - Harris, Philip E., Wisconsin's Trespass Law, University of Wisconsin - Trespassing - Ledgerwood, Garrett, 2009, Virtually Liable, Wash. & Lee Law Review 66


Anderson, Owen L., 2010, Subsurface 'Trespass': A Man's Subsurface is Not His Castle, Washburn Law Journal

Elliott, Catherine, Quinn, Frances, 2007, Tort Law, 6th edition, New York, Pearson Longman

Epstein, Richard A., 2003, Cybertrespass, University of Chicago Law Review 73

Saba, John D. Jr., 2002, Internet Property Rights: E- trespass, St. Mary's Law Journal 33 

Schoenberg, Tom, 2003, Supreme Court Examines Trespassing Policy, Legal Times 

Smith, Kenneth, Keenan, Denis J., 2004, English Law, 14th edition, New York, Pearson Education Ltd. 


By Ana Pintea