Property (Ro.: proprietate, Gr.: κυριότητα, Cz.: majetek, Cr.: vlasništvo, Alb.: Pronë/a(See also: Acquisitive prescription, Probatio diabolica, Jus in re, Subjective right, Superficies, Usufruct, Servitude, Partition) = (in a legal sense) a subjective right comprising a sum of legally protected prerogatives regarding the direct relation of appropriation between an owner and their asset; a right which entitles its owner to the exclusive, absolute and permanent possession, full use and enjoyment of an asset (whether movable or immovable property, corporal or incorporal in nature), with due respect to the limitations prescribed by the Law;

(in an economic sense) a social relation of direct and immediate appropriation of an asset.

~ damage (pagubă materială) = material damage.

~  tax (impozit pe avere) = wealth tax.

Personal ~ (bunuri mobile) = movable assests, movable property.

Real ~ (bunuri imobile, avere imobilă) = immovable assets, immovable property. 

Public ~ ( ~ publică) = property dedicated to public use.

Private ~ ( ~ privată) = personal property, ownership of property by particulars or non-governmental legal entities.

Intellectual ~ (~ intelectuală) = a legal area comprising concepts devoted to the protection of a range of the so-called ‘creations of the mind’, for which exclusive rights are awarded (patents, trademarks, industrial design rights etc).

Annulable ~ ( ~ anulabilă) = legal condition of the property right, designating the temporary uncertainty affecting the right, due to the annulability of its transmission title. Until the due date of the extinctive prescription period for the action for annulment, the right is uncertain and it can be retroactively annulled. The right is permanently consolidated either upon expiry of the prescription term, or upon confirmation by the transferor. 

Aparent ~ ( ~ aparentă) = legal concept designating the situation in which there is an on-going dispute between two purported owners, of whom one is the authentic, de jure owner, and the other one is the person de facto exercising the prerogatives of an owner, with no mandate from the former.

Common ~ ( ~ comună, co~) = real property owned jointly by a number of holders, each having an exclusive quota of the right, and each allowed to freely dispose of its quota, save provision to the contrary.

Forced co ~ (co~ forţată) = real property owned jointly by a number of holders, each having an undivided ratio of the right, and each being compelled to respect the rights of usage of the others, and the pre-established assignment of the asset.

Periodic ~ ( ~ periodică) = species of forced co-property, through which a number of owners exercise jointly and concomitantly, yet successively, their prerogatives over the same asset, according to pre-established equal or non equal time intervals.


Useful links

Legislation - The Romanian Civil Code – The French Civil Code

Organisations and associations - World Intellectual Property Organisation


Boroi G., Stănciulescu L., 2012, Instituţii de drept civil în reglementarea Noului Cod Civil, Romania, Hamangiu.  

Baias Fl. A., Chelaru E., Constantinovici R., Macovei I., 2012, Noul Cod Civil - Comentariu pe articole, 1st edition, revised, Romania, C.H. Beck. – Kohler, P., Clarke, A., 2005, Property Law. Commentary and Materials, UK, Cambridge University Press. – Smith, R.J., 2009, Property Law, UK, Pearson Education Limited. – Bouckaert, B., 2010, Property Law and Economy, UK, MPG Books Group. – Duttfield, G., 208, Global and Intellectual Property Law, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing.



By Andrada Rusan