Initial public offering (Ro.: ofertă publică inițială, De.: ~r Börsengang, Fr.: introduction en bourse, n.f./ premier appel public à l’épargne, n.m., Gr.: προσφορά μετοχών στο κοινό για δημόσια εγγραφή, Cz.: proces IPO) (See also: private company, prospectus, public company, stock  exchange market, stockholder) = the process through which privately held companies issue their shares of stock to the public for the first time, and have the securities admitted to trading on a market, becoming companies owned by public stockholders.

Legislation - Part 6 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, England and Wales [English] - Securities Act Of 1933, U.S. [English] – Law 297/2004 regarding the capital market, Romania [Romanian] - Law on the Prospectus for Securities Offered for Sale (Wertpapier-Verkaufsprospektgesetz - VerkProspG), Germany [English]

Organisations and associations – The Financial Conduct Authority Handbook. Listing, Prospectus, and Disclosure Rules, Financial Conduct Authority (UK) – Initial Public Offerings (IPO), U.S. Securities and Exchange Commision (USA)

Online Publications - 2014, From bazaar to bonanza, – Welch, Ivo, Ritter, Jay R., 2002, A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing and Allocations, Social Science Research Network – Fleischer, Victor, Staudt, Nancy C., 2013, The Supercharged IPO, Social Science Research Network


Davies, Paul Lyndon, Worthington, Sarah, Bartlett Gower, Laurence Cecil, Micheler, Eva, 2008, Gower and Davies: Principles of Modern Company Law, 9th edition, UK, Sweet & Maxwell, Chapters 24 and 25

Gregoriou, Greg N., 2011, Initial Public Offerings (IPO): An International Perspective of IPOs, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann


By Radu Șomlea