Holding (procedural law, common law) (Ro.: decizie, Fr.: décision, n.f., Gr.: συμπέρασμα δικαστικής απόφασης, Cz.: závazné stanovisko) (See also: binding precedent, dictum, jurisprudence, ratio decidendi, stare decisis) = a written legal opinion of a court, or the statement of law applied by a court in response to a certain issue, necessary to reach a final decision. In common law systems, holdings bind the court itself, lower courts, and later courts.

Since precedent is not binding in civil law jurisdictions, judges are not bound by holdings of other judges.


Useful links

Case Law - United States v. Rubin, United States Court of Appeals, 1979 - Minor v. Happersett, United States Supreme Court, 1874

Online Publications

 - Stinson, Judith M., 2011, Teaching the holding/dictum distinction, - 2006, Precedent and Analogy in Legal Reasoning, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Stinson, Judith M., Why Dicta Becomes Holding and Why It Matters, Brooklyn Law Review – Blackman, Josh, 2008, Much Ado About Dictum; or, How to Evade Precedent Without Really Trying: The Distinction between Holding and Dictum, Social Science Research Network - Drumm, David, 2011, Holdings, Dicta, and Stare Decisis, - Vong, David, Binding precedent and English judicial law-making,


Duxbury, Neil, 2008, The Nature and Authority of Precedent, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 

Peters, Christopher J., 2014, Precedent in the United States Supreme Court, USA, Springer Science & Business Media


By Mădălina Moldovan