INCOTERMS (Ro: Incoterms; Fr.: Incoterms; De.: Incoterms, Gr.: διεθνείς εμπορικοί όροι) (See also: Incoterms 2010, International sales of goods, Contracts, Carriage, Insurance, Unloading in port of import/export, Export/Import customs clearance, Export/Import duties and taxes, DDP, CIF, DAP) = International Commercial Terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) to be taken as a point of reference in both international and national trade agreements and as a tool to facilitate the contractual negotiation and their implementation. These terms define different combinations of parties’ obligations regarding the execution of the contracts.

Incoterms are used to make international trade easier, helping traders usually situated in different countries to understand each another. The oldest Incoterms date to 1936, and since then they have been updated in order to correspond to the most current business practices (last update in 2010, establishing 11 terms).


Useful resources

Legislation -  International Chamber of Commerce 

Case law - High Court of Justice of Romania, 9 July 2013, SC C.S. SRL v. D.G.F.P. Arad, Ruling no. 6051/2013 -  CJUE, Judgment of the Court (Third Chamber) of 3 March 2011, Electrosteel Europe SA c/ Edil Centro SpA, Case C-87/10 -  High Court of Justice of Romania, 15 June 2010, SC A. SA v. S.M.D.E.S. Tunisia, Ruling no. 2240/2010 - Court of Appeals of Versailles, 14 March 2002, AGF et a. c/ Rickmers Linie et a. - U.S. District Court, S.D., New York, USA, 26 March 2002, Paul Guardian Insurance Co., et al. v. Neuromed Medical Systems & Support, et al., Number: 00 Civ. 9344 (SHS).

Online publications - Behrendt, O., Remiorz, M., (2013), Facing German jurisdiction in international trade using DDP Incoterm, International Law Office [English] - Coetzee, J., (2013), The Interplay Between INCOTERMS® and the CISG, Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 32, No. 1. [English],d.d24 - Coetzee, J., (2010), INCOTERMS as a form of standardisation in international sales law: an analysis of the interplay between mercantile custom and substantive sales law with specific reference to the passing of risk, Stellenbosch University, Dissertation Paper, [English] - Glitz, F., 2015, Incoterms and Brazilian Legislation on Contracts. Education and Science without borders Journal, vol. 2, n°3, p. 40-44. [English] - Lee, P., (2014), Practical Issues in International Contracts and Trade – Mechanics of Payment and Delivery INCOTERMS 2010, International Law Institute International Procure Seminar Washington, DC [English] - Pathak, A. S., (2016), Understanding Incoterms 2010 [English] - Railas, L., (2013), Insurance and reinsurance in Finland: overview, [English] - Rodríguez, M., 2010, The New International Commercial Terms (INCOTERMS) and its Application in Colombia's Law (Los Nuevos Términos Comerciales Internacionales (INCOTERMS) Y Su Aplicación En El Derecho Colombiano), Revist@ e-Mercatoria, Vol. 9, No. 2. [Spanish]


Bergami, R., (2013), Managing Incoterms 2010 risks: tension with trade and banking practices, Int. J. of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Publishers, Vol. 6 Issue 3, pp. 324 – 338, [English]

Jolivet, E., (2003), Les incoterms: étude d’une norme du commerce international, Bibliothèque du droit de l’entreprise [French]

Jolivet, E.,  Les Incoterms dans les sentences arbitrales de la Chambre de commerce internationale, Bulletin de la cour internationale d'arbitrage de la CCI, Vol. 21/1, pp. 55. [French]

Lane, S., (2012), Incoterms 2010: What You Really Need to Know, Business Credit, Vol.114(6), pp.8-9 [English]

O’Connor, E., (2013), INCOTERMS® 2010 Q&A, Questions and expert ICC guidance on the Incoterms® 2010 rules, ICC Publication No. 744E [English]

Ramberg, J. , (2011), ICC Guide to Incoterms® 2010, ICC Publication No. 720E [English]


By Diana Buzilă