Trafficking (Cz.: nelegální obchodování, Gr.: εμπορία ανθρώπων) (See also: human/woman/child/drug/labour/organ trafficking, smuggling, organised crime) = the  recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation includes forced labour, slavery, servitude, the removal of organs or any kind of sexual exploitation. Trafficking is a serious crime and a gross violation of rights. It is often linked with other forms of organised crime. It occurs all over the world and affects almost every country as an origin, transit or destination country or sometimes a combination of all.


Useful resources

Legislation - United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto [English] - Directive 2012/29/EU of the European Parliament and the Council of 25 October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA [English] - Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2004/68/JHA [English] - Directive 2009/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 providing for minimum standards on sanctions and measures against employers of illegally staying third-country nationals [English]

Case law - Overview of case law from EU Member States on trafficking in human beings [English] - Overview of case law on trafficking in woman in front of European Court of Human Rights [English]

Online publications – European Parliament, Directorate – General for External Policies, 2015, Trafficking in Human Organs [English] - Eurostat, 2015, Report on Trafficking in human beings, Statistical Working Papers [English] - Europol, 2016, Trafficking in human beings, Situation Report, Document Ref No: 765175 [English] - Taylor & Francis Online, Journal of Human Trafficking, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2016 - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007, An Assessment of referral Practices to Assist and Protect the Rights of Trafficked Persons in Moldova [English] - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2012, Assessment Guide to the Criminal Justice Response to the Smuggling of Migrants [English] - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2015, The Concept of 'Exploitation' in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, Issue Paper [English]


Hart, J., 2009, Human Trafficking, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

Gallagher, A. T., 2010, The International Law of Human Trafficking, Cambridge University Press

Zimmerman, Y. C, 2013, Other Dreams of Freedom, religion, sex and human trafficking, Cambridge University Press

Sherman, J., 2010, Drug Trafficking, ABDO Publishing Company

Territo, L., Matteson R., 2012, The International Trafficking of Human Organs, Taylor & Francis Group


By Šárka Šilhánková